Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences

Author Guidelines

Identification by PCR of Fusarium culmorum Strains Producing Large and Small Amounts of Deoxynivalenol

Bakan B. Mark1         Giraud C. Delville 2             Pinson L. Torrance2

                     Professor                     Professor                  Assistant Professor

1Plant protection Department, College of Agriculture, Kangwon University, Korea.

2Plant protection Department, College of Agriculture, Friedrich-Wilhelms Germany.

Corresponding author:


Thirty deoxynivalenol-producing F. culmorum strains, isolated from wheat grains, were incubated in vitro and analyzed for trichothecene production.Seventeen strains produced more than 1 ppm of deoxynivalenol…..etc.

Key words: DNA barcode, COX 1 gene, ITS rDNA, fungal identification, biodiversity.


Trichothecenes, including deoxynivalenol, acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and fusarenone X, are sesquiterpene toxins produced by Fusarium species, including Fusarium culmorum, which are common fungal contaminants of cereals. Trichothecenes can be found naturally worldwide on cereals (1, 2, 3), and the consumption of these toxins is a potential problem for humans and farm animals (4).

Materials and methods

strains isolated from cereals from different areas in France were used in this study, as presented in Table 1. Fusarium strains may also be obtained from the first author.

Toxin production.

Toxin production by the Fusarium strains was conducted on autoclaved wheat grains. Wheat grains (Soissons) were moistened with sterile distilled water for 4 days at 4°C until thermodynamic water activity was maximal…..etc.

Trichothecene analysis.

Wheat grains (25 g) were analyzed by gas chromatography- electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry etc.


  1. culmorum identification. The Fusarium strains studied were isolated from commercial wheat kernels. Morphological identification of F. culmorum strains was confirmed by PCR….etc.


Figure 1:   nucleotide sequence generated from PCR products amplified from ……


Table 1: Oligonucleotide pairs used for gene specific amplification

Gene name




Primer sequence (59–39)

Amplification product


expected size (kb)
Isocitrate lyase* ICL-F GGC TGG CAG TCN TCY TCT ACM G 1
Transcription factor MST12-F GCS CCW GTN GAC TGG CAA CCC 1.1


*Gene name and primer sequence were obtained from NCBI.


1.Ahmad, T. (2001) Molecular detection and characterization of Fusarium verticillioides in maize (Zea mays. L) grownM.Sc. Thesis, Plant Protection Dept., Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Kerbala, pp. 85. (An example of a thesis or report).

2.Agrios G. N. (2005) Plant Pathology, 4th Edition. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlingto, pp. 922. (An example of a book).

3.Godoy, P.; Cano, J.; Gene, J.; Guarro, J. Hoüfling-Lima, A. L. and Colombo, A. L. (2014) Genotyping of 44 isolates of Fusarium solani, the main agent of fungal keratitis in Brazil. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42: 4494-4497. (An example of a paper of a Journal).




Notes for the researcher(s):

  1. The standard unit writing system must be standardized as given here in this example: 100 mg. L-1.
  2. The paper will be returned to the researcher(s) if the researcher(s) does not comply with the publication instructions in our journal, and not follow all the amendments fixed by the reviewers.
  3. The editor-in-chief and members of the editorial board are entitled to refuse the paper without returning to the reviewers in case of the publishing conditions in the paper submitted to our Journal are not available.